Social influence Social influence is an overarching term given to describe the persuasive effects people have on each other. It is seen as a fundamental value in social psychology and overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion.
Northwestern University This paper examines Skinner's theory of radical behaviorism. The examination describes the concepts of classical conditioning and operant conditioning as well as evaluates Skinner's "Selection by Consequences.
Despite criticisms, the theory is shown to have merit in some respects. However, the theory is shown to have fundamental flaws that inhibit its greatness, such as the use of animal research, the "black box" concept of the mind, and the denial of thought and mental processes.
The concept of conditioning is well-established in psychological theory and practice. From Pavlov's research, the world became cognizant of classical conditioning. Through his study of the salivation habits of dogs, the concepts of stimuli and responses have been applied to psychological study.
Unconditioned stimuli elicit unconditioned responses; for example, a dog salivates when presented with food.
Pavlov then determined that stimuli could be conditioned to elicit conditioned responses. In the case of his dogs, he paired a bell with the presentation of food, and after time the bell itself produced salivation.
Finally, higher-order conditioning is possible. This type of conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus is able to cause responses from other neutral stimuli by being associated with them. For example, pairing a ball with a bell can cause a dog to salivate in the presence of a ball.
In humans, higher-order conditioning can be quite complex; symbols such as words can be capable of evoking emotional responses Mischel, Operant Conditioning Harvard psychologist B.
Skinner proposed his own theory of conditioning. His concept, operant conditioning, is at the heart of his highly influential and controversial theory of behaviorism. Behaviorism studies behavior as the basic unit of understanding organisms, including humans.
The theory observes behavior and seeks to determine the conditions that affect a given behavior. Essentially, in personality theory, according to behaviorists a person's behavior determines his or her personality.
Behaviorists, being concerned with observable behavior, treat the mind almost as the proverbial "black box. The "black box" idea is convenient for behaviorism because mental processes are unobservable and therefore very difficult to explain according to behavioral theory.
In fact, behaviorists tend to refuse the idea that specific motivations even exist for behavior. They instead try to determine the external conditions that influence behavior and explain away motivations or drives as simply the effects of deprivations or satiations. Instead of motivation, environment is the key factor influencing behavior.
Skinner's basic strategy for studying behavior involves functional analysis; the link between behavior and exact determining conditions is sought.
He maintains that most of human behavior is the result of freely-given response patterns, also called operants. In simplest terms, Skinner's operant conditioning is learning based on the consequences produced by the responses of elicited behavior.
In this way, behavior can be said to be reinforced, and nearly all events can act as reinforcers. Therefore, as in the example of words being stimuli in higher-order conditioning, behaviorism would say that words that elicit positive emotional responses reinforce the speaker to utter them again in order to receive the positive response.
Skinner also realized that conditioned reinforcers could be generalized when a response pattern occurred under many conditions. Through his observation of animal behavior, primarily that of pigeons, Skinner also developed the idea of shaping to obtain a desired behavior.
Shaping is the successive rewarding of closer approximations to a desired behavior. It involves schedules of reinforcement that can be continuous or partial. Partial reward of behavior tends to be more effective.
Shaping can be applied to humans as well as pigeons. A common use of shaping occurs in the rearing of children as they need to be taught desirable behaviors Mischel, Skinner's "Selection by Consequences" The theory of evolution holds that characteristics of organisms come about due to selection by consequences.
Skinner includes behavior as a characteristic that can come about through selection by consequences. He says, "What we call behavior evolved as a set of functions furthering the interchange between organism and environment" Skinner,p.
Therefore, Skinner concludes that behavior also evolves in accordance with two contingencies: Central to Skinner's theory is the idea of consequences as related to the evolution of behavior.Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking.
This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life. Ivan Pavlov and his theory of classical conditioning had a profound impact on the understanding of human behavior. This lesson explains classical conditioning and Pavlov's contributions to psychology.
Classical conditioning (also Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning) is a form of learning in which the conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus or US.5/5(1).
One fundamental learning process. Pigeon research suggests that classical and operant conditioning share a common process, lending insight into clinical work. Welcome to the International Conference on Mindfulness (ICM) website!
International Conference of Mindfulness (ICM) will be held July in the historic city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, under the scientific lead of professors Susan Bögels and Anne Speckens of the University of Amsterdam and the Radboud University Nijmegen.
Podcast: Play in new window | Download | Embed We’ve all seen the breathless stories about the latest sign of the coming Artificial Intelligence apocalypse, and we’ve all seen the fine print revealing those stories to be empty hype.