Freed by the 13th AmendmentHerndon and his mother, younger brother, and maternal grandparents became sharecroppers.
As the social season got underway, however, Molly McElroy neither returned to Albany— nor was asked to by the President. She again received guests with him at a formal dinner two days later, and the next morning she hosted her own first afternoon reception.
Standing in front of the oval divan in the Blue Room, she began to host a weekly public reception on Saturdays, largely for women who worked weekdays and would otherwise have been unable to meet her. Any bit of information about her was eagerly sought. An initial description only provided a physical composite: Without the status of a presidential spouse, she felt unbound by the unwritten social coda that had dictated the social interactions of her predecessors who had been wives, and she freely attended social events in private homes.
After two months, even the President now felt comfortable with the presence of an official White House hostess. On the eve of her return to Albany, following the end of the series of official dinners he was expected to host as President, Arthur felt compelled to honor his popular sister at a farewell dinner on March By October 3, it was reported that Mrs.
While it was clear that President Arthur still determined the roster of official White House entertaining, he would not make any final decisions until he consulted with his new First Lady.
Since Arthur did not use the bedroom in the southwest corner of the White House traditionally reserved for the Chief Executive, he turned it over to her.
It took time for Molly McElroy to fully acclimate to the physical demand of standing and shaking hands on receiving lines for hours on end.
At one of her Saturday receptions, she became fatigued and had to leave her post to rest. By her second year, she had grown into the role. While joining the President at a fancy masked ball, she remained one of the few women who did not wear a costume, preferring instead to watch the pageant of costumes, dancing and other festivities from an upper-floor supper room.
Perhaps due to the unorthodox circumstances of having a First Lady begin her tenure well into an Administration, Chester Arthur seemed willing to break with custom in hosting his state dinners. Beginning with an 11 February diplomatic corps dinner, he increased the traditional number of dinner guests by twenty-five percent.
A month later, at their dinner for the Senate, President Arthur and Mrs. McElroy broke with tradition in several ways. The invitation of the famously late-dining President who it was publicly acknowledged, slept until eleven in the morning, called for entertainment first, to be followed by a midnight supper, complete with champagne.
As Arthur escorted their special guest, the legendary Swedish operatic soprano Christina Nilsson and a Senate wife by the arm through the three smaller reception rooms, the First Lady took on the separate duty of standing alone in the East Room to welcome arriving guests, standing just inside the doors.
As her brother shattered precedent, so too did Molly McElroy. Inshe decided to remain in Washington longer than she intended, and to extend her weekly receptions beyond Ash Wednesday, breaking the observed social dictum of suspending large social events through the Lenten season.
Wearing primarily black or shades of lavender or grey, she had the rooms illuminated with gaslight and heavily banked with plants, ferns and flowers.
The lead hostess in each room would introduce the guest by name to the next hostess at her right, and thus the guest would be passed down along through the rooms. After all of her hostesses had finished shaking hands, often with upwards of 2, guests each week, Molly McElroy invited them upstairs to the family quarters.
There she had a buffet table set in the center of the long West Sitting Hall spread with tea sandwiches and refreshments. The post-reception upstairs luncheons soon assumed the same level of planning that the large party preceding it had.
Molly McElroy also welcomed several of her predecessors to the White House, hosting an elegant private luncheon for Julia Grant, and asking Washington residents Julia Tyler and Harriet Lane to serve as hostesses at some of her receptions.
In time, her husband and each of her four children would come stay for a period of time at the White House, many of them congregating there over Easter, along with other members of the extended Arthur family.th Grade Social Studies New South to World War I Unit Information Milestones Domain/Weight: History 47% Booker T.
Washington, along with Georgian John Hope. In addition, women, such as Rebecca Alonzo Herndon W.E.B. DuBois Booker T. Washington John and Lugenia Hope Supplemental** Activist Orator Poll Taxes. Herndon also was a founding member of Booker T. Washington's National Negro Business League in Five years later he was one of the original members of the W.E.B.
DuBois-led Niagara Movement. Tiemann, Bernhardt Mr. Bernhard Tiemann Journeys to Last Home.
Brief notice was given in last issue of the Mercury regarding the death of a former citizen of this place, Mr. Bernhard Tiemann, which occurred Tuesday night of last week at the home of his son, Mr. Adolf Tiemann, in HalletsvIlle. Alonzo Herndon, center, in his Markham House hotel barbershop, circa especially in the South.
Booker T. Washington, , Alonzo Franklin Herndon grew up on a farm in Social Circle, Georgia forty miles east of Atlanta.
He was the son of his white master, Frank Herndon and a slave Sophenie. The correct answer is 2. They didn't have the ships and navigation skills to travel around Africa to Asia. The Age of Exploration would not have been possible without the inventions of new ships like caravels or the extensive research/studying of navigation by individuals like Prince Henry the Navigator.
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