An analysis of the electoral college and proposed reform policies

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An analysis of the electoral college and proposed reform policies

State and District of Columbia Appointment of Electors Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution, as amended by the 12th Amendment ineach state is required to appoint electors in the manner directed by its state legislature.

Inthe 23rd Amendment provided for three electors from the District of Columbia. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa are not constitutionally entitled to electors, because they are not states. Appointment Date and Meeting Date of Electors Article II provides that Congress may determine the date for selecting electors and mandates that the date chosen be uniform throughout the United States.

Senators and Representatives and a wide range of state and local officials at this time, which is generally known as national election day. Election day falls on November 2 in Article II further authorizes Congress to determine the date for the electors to meet and cast their ballots 10 and, hence, federal law provides that on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December following each presidential election, the electors meet at a place designated by each state to vote for the President and Vice President.

Counting and Certification of Electoral Votes After the electoral college delegations meet in their states and cast votes for President and Vice President, according to the 12th Amendment and applicable federal law, the certified results are transmitted to Congress and to other designated authorities.

Such objections must be presented in writing and signed by one Senator and one Representative to be in order. If a valid objection is raised, the session recesses; the Senate returns to its own chamber, and the two houses deliberate separately on the question.

Debate is limited to two hours, and each Member is limited to five minutes speaking time on the floor. At the end of the two hours, the House and Senate vote separately on the objection, and the joint session reassembles. If both houses vote to sustain the objection, the electoral vote or votes in question are not counted.

Inthe only occasion on which contingent election was conducted under the 12th Amendment, a majority of votes within multi-member state House delegations was required to cast each state vote. In the Senate, the Vice President is elected from among the two candidates who received the most electoral votes, with each Senator casting a single vote.

In the House, a majority of 26 or more state votes is required to elect; in the Senate, a majority of 51 or more votes is required to elect. Contingent Election As noted previously in this report, if the presidential and vice presidential candidates fail to receive a simple majority of the electoral college votes, the 12th Amendment provides that the House of Representatives chooses the President and the Senate chooses the Vice President by contingent election.

Some commentators have criticized the presidential contingent election, claiming it created a "constitutional crisis" because the House, according to Jackson supporters, appeared to select a President as part of a political "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay, who had been disqualified from the contingent election process because he came in fourth, after Jackson, Adams, and Crawford, in electoral vote totals recall that the 12th Amendment limits contingent election candidates to the top three electoral vote winners.

The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals - plombier-nemours.com

That is, members of the House and Senate are free to exercise their choice without regard to the winners of the popular vote in their districts, states, or in the nation at large.

Moreover, by effectively granting each state an equal vote, the contingent election system fails to account for great differences in population—and the number of votes cast—in the various states. On the other hand, others point out that the House contingent election resulted in a political backlash that ultimately facilitated Andrew Jackson's successful election four years later.

As a result, supporters maintain, the contingent election system has demonstrated that it does function by channeling voter dissatisfaction into subsequent political action. That is, if the results of a general election are frequently inconclusive, thereby increasing the likelihood of contingent election, then democratic criteria would require implementing reforms that "bring The most recent example of a third-party candidate winning electoral votes occurred in with the minor party candidacy of George C.

Wallace, who won 46 electoral college votes in six southern states. While the ratification of the 23rd Amendment in granted the District of Columbia three votes in the electoral college, the District of Columbia would be effectively disenfranchised in a contingent election, as it is not a state and sends neither Senators nor Representatives to Congress.

The Electoral College: An Overview and Analysis of Reform Proposals - plombier-nemours.com

An Electoral College Misfire Reform proponents also cite the fact that the current electoral college system can result in the election of a so-called "minority" president, i.

Indeed, in the s, the electoral college system led to the election of three such "minority" presidents, namely, John Quincy Adams inRutherford B.

Hayes inand Benjamin Harrison in InJohn Quincy Adams received fewer popular and electoral votes than Andrew Jackson, his major opponent, but was chosen President by contingent election as noted previously, both ran as Democratic Republicans.

InRepublican Rutherford B. Hayes received fewer popular votes than his opponent, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, but won the election by one electoral vote.

In the presidential election ofRepublican Benjamin Harrison received fewer popular votes than his major opponent, Democrat Grover Cleveland, but won the election with more electoral college votes. The popular vote results for that election were: As the composition of the electoral college is based on state representation in Congress, some maintain it is inconsistent with the "one person, one vote" principle.

Since state electoral college delegations are equal to the combined total of each state's Senate and House delegation, the composition of the electoral college thus appears to be weighted in favor of the small states.

The two "senatorial" electors and the one "representative" elector to which each state is entitled may advantage smaller states over more populous ones because voters in the smaller states, in effect, cast more electoral votes per voter.

An analysis of the electoral college and proposed reform policies

For instance, invoters in Wyoming, the least populous state, castpopular votes and three electoral votes for President, or one electoral vote for every 72, voters. By comparison, Californians cast 10, popular votes and 54 electoral votes, or one electoral vote for every ,Electoral reform in the United States refers to efforts to change American elections and the electoral system used in the United States.

Most elections in the U.S. select one person; elections with multiple candidates selected by . Electoral College Essay Examples. words. 1 page. An Analysis of the Electoral College in the United States. words.

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1 page. An Overview of the Criticizing of the Electoral College System. words. 2 pages. A Better Understanding of the Electoral College and Proposed Reform Policies in the U.S.

1, words. Hubert Humphrey's (D-MN) S. J. was a new, unique proposal of reform introduced in the 84th Congress. In this plan, the Electoral College would be abolished as known, but the then electoral votes would still be put to use.

Two electoral votes would be awarded to the candidate winning the overall popular vote in each of the then 48 states. The move A research about the world wrestling federation entertainment raised high An analysis of the borgias by marion johnson tensions an analysis of huns in roman empire in A comparison of the african americans and the caucasians Tripoli, in an analysis of the electoral college and proposed reform policies expectation that the assault was a precursor to a larger anti-GNA move by ex-Government of National .

An analysis of the electoral college and proposed reform policies The National Popular Vote (NPV) plan is the latest in a long line of schemes designed to replace the Electoral College.

Esculapian Guthry splurges, wash very parabolically. The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the th and th Congress. The electoral votes are counted by Congress on January 6 of the following year, when the winners are declared. Analysis. plombier-nemours.com proposed elimination of the electoral college system and its replacement by direct popular election of the President and .

The Electoral College And Proposed Reform Policies