A total of farmer households were purposively and randomly selected from two sub-counties to respond to a standard questionnaire. The sample comprised of 50 farmers from each of the two sub-counties.
Posted on March 20, by budisuanda Accurate estimation of the construction cost of a project is extremely important. One of the most unpleasant bits of news you may ever have to deliver to a client is that the cost of a project will be more than you had estimated. Construction cost estimating usually proceeds in one of two ways, either the client provides the designer with a maximum budget figure, the limit for construction costsor there is a preliminary period of study under the schematic design phase in which possible schemes are developed and their respective costs estimated.
Some factors can individually affect construction cost estimating include the project: Size The smaller the project in terms of scope or the number of square feet, the more it will cost per square foot.
Thus for a very large and expensiove project, the start up costs will be a small percentage of the total construction cost. For a small project, since start-up costs remain stable, they will constitute a large percentage of the total construction budget.
Start-up becomes a major cost factor when estimating construction costs for small to medium sized projects. Type The type of project or the kind of space you are designing has an impact on estimating construction costs.
The cost of construction depends on the time the contractors will need to execute the work, the degree of specialization of the work to be done, and the cost of the materials. Different types of project have different levels of complexity and detail.
Construction costs for the four star restaurant would be much higher than the cafeteria even though it probably would have smaller square footage. Clients may have difficulty understanding variations in costs. There are three variables in any project, and only two of these can be controlled at any one time.
If a client wants a high degree of quality, the cost must be allowed to flex. If the client has a rigid budget, and a minimum quantity of square footage, then they must compromise on quality. In this instance cost and quantity are controlled, and quality must be allowed to vary.
Special Construction Complexity can greatly increase the cost of the project. These conditions may include renovations, heavy loading, i. Renovation, especially if it requires altering or moving structural components, can be costly because it necessitates demolition as well as building.
Quantities of files and books are heavy so the flooring may require additional structural support. Special construction may also be necessary to shield surrounding spaces from noise, fire and other hazards. Project accessibility Sites may be difficult to access, either geographically or because the space is used during business hours, requiring that the project be scheduled for off hours.
This can be a problem when adjacent spaces have sensitive equipment, or when construction materials containing hazardous chemicals are used in the construction process. You will be surprised how many construction materials do in fact contain hazardous chemicals. This presents a unique problem which has yet to be adequately addressed, because even if the area under renovation can be physically isolated from other areas of the building, very often the HVAC system has not been readjusted, and these chemicals are often circulated throughout the area or building, creating hazards for occupants.
This situation is especially critical in permanently enclosed office buildings those whose windows are non-operating, i. The most frequent culprits in terms of hazardous chemicals are glues, paint removers, mastics, carpet backings, and synthetically produced building materials.
Be alert for these chemicals: In summary, these factors can increase the time and effort needed by the contractor and result in an increased cost of construction: These conditions frequently occur when projects are located in old buildings for which there are no drawings or specifications documenting the existing structure and conditions.
In these situations it is impossible to know absolutely what is inside of walls without conducting X-ray investigations, which are occasionally done under extreme conditionsor other building components involved in the renovation.
Uncertainty of conditions should give both the construction estimator and the contractor pause. Unknown conditions can increase both the risk and the complexity of construction, and some allowance must be made in the costs estimates, particularly if problems are suspected.
Project Difficulty Other factors can also raise costs: The project schedule may be tight, e. Sub-contractors may have to work over time or neglect other projects in order to finish work on time.Accurate estimation of the construction cost of a project is extremely important.
One of the most unpleasant bits of news you may ever have to deliver to a client is that the cost of a project will be more than you had estimated.
Ranking of the factors will enable the MARA engineers for taking appropriate actions in improving the performance of cost in construction projects. Identification of Variables Affecting Employee Satisfaction and Their Impact on the Organization plombier-nemours.com 33 | Page.
To assess the factors affecting the adoption of beekeeping and associated technologies in Western Uganda, this study was undertaken. A total of farmer households were purposively and randomly selected from two sub-counties to respond to a standard questionnaire.
The sample comprised of There are many factors affecting cost of building construction in Nigeria. If you want to build a house or if you want to invest in real estate (buildings) in Nigeria, you should have knowledge of these factors in order to take the right steps and make better decisions when it comes to building construction.
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