History of photography The earliest practical photographic process was the daguerreotype ; it was introduced in and did not use film.
Dolly grip The grip in charge of operating the camera dollies and camera cranes is called the dolly grip. They place, level, and move the dolly track, then push and pull the dolly, and usually a camera operator and camera assistant as riders.
Grips report to the key grip and are responsible for lifting heavy things and setting rigging points for lights.
Sound Grip Similar to grips, in regards to the kinds of role they play on set; however, sound grips will also report to the production sound mixer and serve as a critical link between these departments.
Production sound mixer The production sound mixer or sound recordist is the head of the Sound Department on location and is responsible for the operation of the audio Mixer and Recorder s which receive feeds from the microphones on set.
It is their responsibility to decide how they will deploy their team to capture the sound for each shot, select which microphones will be used for each setup, mix audio from all of the microphones in real time into a "mix track" Film camera will be used while viewing rushes and during the edit, and sometimes in the final film, and to maintain logs of audio related issues for post production.
The sound mixer is considered a department head, and is thus completely responsible for all aspects of production sound. Boom operator The boom operator, first assistant sound or "1st AS", is responsible for utilising microphones on the end of boom poles lightweight telescopic poles made of aluminium, or more commonly, carbon fibre held above actor's heads during a scene to capture dialogue.
It is also their responsibility to relay information from the "floor" back to the production sound mixer regarding upcoming shots, troublesome noises that the mixer will need to be made aware of if they can't be silenced, and for mounting radio microphones on actors.
In France, the boom operator is called the Perchman. Second assistant sound The second assistant sound, sound utility technician, or "2nd AS", is the assistant to the boom operator and is responsible for moving and preparing sound equipment for use around the set while the boom op watches rehearsals and prepares for the next shot, as well as handling wireless audio feeds to the director, script supervisor and producers, and laying carpet and other sound dampening materials in locations with problematic floors or a troublesome acoustic.
In addition, the 2nd AS is regularly called upon to operate a second boom in scenes with a larger number of actors or where actors are physically spaced too far apart for the 1st AS to cover all of the dialogue with one microphone. The 2nd AS also regularly aids in the radio mic'ing of cast when there are a large number of actors in a scene.
The term "sound utility technician" is now considered an outdated term by BECTU in the UK and 2nd AS is preferred, with sound utility technician as a role being omitted from recent versions of the rate card.
Art department[ edit ] The art department in a major feature film can often number hundreds of people. Usually it is considered to include several sub-departments: Production designer The production designer is responsible for creating the visual appearance of the film — settings, costumes, character makeup, all taken as a unit.
The production designer works closely with the director and the director of photography to achieve the look of the film. Art sets and graphic art [ edit ] Within the overall art department is a sub-department, also called the art department—which can be confusing.
This consists of the people who design the sets and create the graphic art. Art director The art director reports to the production designer, and more directly oversees artists and craftspeople, such as the set designers, graphic artists, and illustrators who give form to the production design as it develops.
The art director works closely with the construction coordinator and key scenic artist to oversee the aesthetic and textural details of sets as they are realized.
Typically, the art director oversees the budget and schedule of the overall art department. On large-budget productions with numerous sets and several art directors, one might be credited as supervising art director or senior art director.
Standby art director In the organizational system used in the UK and Ireland, the standby art director monitors the art department's work on set during filming on behalf of the production designer. They work closely with the standby painters and standby carpenters, and co-ordinate any changes to the set during filming.
In the North American system, this work is shared between the props master and the on-set dresser. Assistant art director The first, second and third assistant art directors carry out the instructions of the art director.
Their work often involves measuring locations and collecting other pertinent information for the production designer.
Sometimes a set designer is also the first assistant art director. In this capacity, they manage the workflow and act as the foreman of the drawing office.Shop B&H for our huge inventory of Film Cameras including 35mm Cameras, Medium Format Film Cameras and Large Format Cameras, all at unbelievable prices.
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