What your audience should expect. Explain your expectation before seeing or experiencing subject. Were expectations fulfilled or unfulfilled? Discuss what other people think of this subject.
Thanks to archivists who've retrieved WPA documents from warehouses and garbage dumps, and to Federal One veterans who've produced memoirs and analyses, the projects are extensively documented. There are plenty of anecdotes illustrating the insensitivity of bureaucrats, the clumsiness of politicians' interventions, the attacks of censors and the perils of centralized control.
Federal One didn't effect a complete transformation of the cultural landscape; when it was over, cultural production and distribution returned to something very much like the patterns they had taken earlier. It has been argued that the projects served as pacifiers, containing a potentially radical and threatening artists' movement by converting it to a form of government service.
But Federal One cannot be written off as hopelessly flawed. It might be argued that for the narratives of former slaves alone -- for first-person accounts of this pivotal experience in the history of the U. The FTP served as a laboratory for theatrical forms, some of which still seem fresh and new today.
Federal One created opportunities for artists who would have had the greatest difficulties sustaining their work otherwise; and for thousands of people who might never have been able to paint or write or attend live theater themselves.
Though these Federal One projects were mandated nationally, they were conceived with local cultural situations in mind. The regional and oral history collections compiled by the Federal Writers Project, the music and art projects' composers and design indexes -- these and many WPA initiatives documented a past that the private sector had neither the interest nor the resources to preserve -- neither in the '30s nor today.
Special emphasis was placed on preserving and promoting minority cultural forms.
So, for example, black theater companies were established in Birmingham, Boston, Chicago, Hartford, Los Angeles, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, Raleigh, San Francisco and Seattle -- all places where economic and social conditions had made it impossible for black theater to exist outside of the fast-disappearing vaudeville stage.
Similarly, foreign language companies performed works in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Yiddish; though eager audiences existed for these productions, mounting them for profit had become impossible.
In short, the New Deal cultural projects took responsibility for our cultural commonwealth. They took on the task of recording history -- including many parts otherwise deemed too painful or embarrassing to mention.
More than that, they strove to promote cultural life where private action had failed or even done it positive harm. Within the large, centrally-directed frameworks of Federal One projects, considerable allowance was made for regional differences.
The Oklahoma Federal Theatre was a case in point. Oklahoma had few theater professionals, so they had to be used wisely and fully by state directors. The Oklahoma theater project established a service bureau which "ultimately furnished plays, radio scripts, or dramatic source material to over dramatic clubs in educational institutions.
The playwright's group expanded to include 66 young writers. It also ran a theater for the blind; ten recreation centers serving both black and white communities; and the Vagabond Puppeteers, which toured Civilian Conservation Corps camps. Designed in consultation with artists' unions, commercial producers and other arts community leaders, Federal One projects made possible work that was acknowledged as important but impossible to undertake in existing private settings.
In many cases, this placed the federal government in the role of taking risks for private entrepreneurs no longer willing or able to gamble on new material.
The Federal Theatre Project, for example, set up a "try-out" theater in New York City to assess the potential of new material for commercial production: The Theatre Project introduced important formal innovations.
The "Living Newspaper" is perhaps the best-known of these, emerging as the hallmark of the FTP's work. The material they gathered was transformed into a new form of documentary theater -- large-cast, multimedia productions, innovatively staged.
Living Newspapers pioneered techniques that are still seen as part of "experimental" theater; for instance, photographs, animation sequences and short films were projected onto scrims, adding layers of visual information to the dimensions provided by live actors and fixed scenery.
Amplified voices and offstage loudspeakers supplemented the live voices of actors, commenting on the action, posing questions, adding factual information and crowd noise.
Living Newspapers were often produced simultaneously in several cities, sometimes with local variations. The most famous "edition," One-Third of a Nation, was produced in 11 cities. It gave dramatic form to FDR's famous statement, "I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad and ill-nourished.
I am asked whether a theater subsidized by the government can be kept free of censorship, and I say, yes, it is going to be kept free from censorship. What we want is a free, adult, uncensored theater. When the New York FTP unit tried to get a recording of President Roosevelt's speech on Ethiopia to use in the production, the White House became alarmed at the content of the piece and banned the impersonation of any foreign ruler on the Federal Theatre stage.
Censorship did recur, but its sources and causes were diverse. State and local WPA officials were the most frequent transgressors of Harry Hopkins' stated intention. The artist was fired, though he brought in his source photos to prove that the Lenin lookalike was really an early parachutist and the plane a U.
He sputtered that the play, was "of such a moral character that I can't even discuss it with a member of the press. Despite the reservations of censors, WPA projects were highly popular with audiences and critics, and reviews were generally favorable.
But papers opposed to the New Deal capitalized on every act of censorship or problem in the programs. Artists, too, envisioned a future for the projects; in the words of painter Stuart Davis, then secretary of the American Artists' Congress, "The artists of America do not look upon the art projects as a temporary stopgap measure, but see in them the beginning of a new and better day for art in this country.
In a sense, Federal One itself ultimately fell to the censors. Federal One, as a highly visible and controversial part of the larger agency, provided an especially good target for FDR's enemies.California Arts and Humanities Institutions.
Film Artists Musicians Writers Visual Artists New Media Technocreators Architects Dancers Opera Theater Broadcast Media.
Introduction to Musical Theatre Essay Type of paper: Essays Subject: Art Words: An Introduction to Musical Theatre. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and plot of a stage play with a musical component; the extent of this musical collaboration has changed over the years, from operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays.
From. The Evolution Of Dance In Theater Theatre Essay Dance is defined as the art of movement. It can be used to express feelings, to exercise, to perform, and some can even interact and have. Cleveland Public Theatre: Creativity and Community - Theater is an established art form that has served as public entertainment for many years.
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Western Reserve Academy was established on February 7, as the Western Reserve College and Preparatory School in Hudson, Ohio, on a acre (77 ha) plot of land set aside via charter by the Ohio legislature.
The institution's name comes from the area in which it was built, the Connecticut Western Reserve, as it was the first of its kind in Northern Ohio.