Alien encounters Since human beings are the only known form of fully sentient life, any encounter with nonhuman intelligence is necessarily speculative. A fuller knowledge of natural history enabled writers to imagine that life on other worlds might develop differently from life on Earth. This Gallic conceptual breakthrough was first exploited in fiction by J.
See Article History Alternative Titles: SF, sci-fi, speculative fiction Science fiction, abbreviation SF or sci-fi, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals.
These achievement awards are given to the top SF writers, editors, illustrators, films, and fanzines. Science fiction The world of science fiction Science fiction is a modern genre.
Though writers in antiquity sometimes dealt with themes common to modern science fiction, their stories made no attempt at scientific and technological plausibility, the feature that distinguishes science fiction from earlier speculative writings and other contemporary speculative genres such as fantasy and horror.
The genre formally emerged in the West, where the social transformations wrought by the Industrial Revolution first led writers and intellectuals to extrapolate the future impact of technology.
This approach was central to the work of H. Wellsa founder of the genre and likely its greatest writer. Wells was an ardent student of the 19th-century British scientist T. This dark dystopian side can be seen especially in the work of T.
The sense of dread was also cultivated by H. Lovecraftwho invented the famous Necronomicon, an imaginary book of knowledge so ferocious that any scientist who dares to read it succumbs to madness.
On a more personal level, the works of Philip K. Dick often adapted for film present metaphysical conundrums about identity, humanity, and the nature of reality. When the genre began to gel in the early 20th century, it was generally disreputable, particularly in the United Stateswhere it first catered to a juvenile audience.
Following World War IIscience fiction spread throughout the world from its epicentre in the United Statesspurred on by ever more staggering scientific feats, from the development of nuclear energy and atomic bombs to the advent of space travel, human visits to the Moon, and the real possibility of cloning human life.
By the 21st century, science fiction had become much more than a literary genre. Its avid followers and practitioners constituted a thriving worldwide subculture. Fans relished the seemingly endless variety of SF-related products and pastimes, including booksmoviestelevision shows, computer games, magazinespaintings, comicsand, increasingly, collectible figurines, Web sites, DVDs, and toy weaponry.
They frequently held well-attended, well-organized conventions, at which costumes were worn, handicrafts sold, and folk songs sung.
The evolution of science fiction Antecedents Antecedents of science fiction can be found in the remote past. Among the earliest examples is the 2nd-century-ce Syrian-born Greek satirist Lucianwho in Trips to the Moon describes sailing to the Moon. Such flights of fancy, or fantastic tales, provided a popular format in which to satirize government, society, and religion while evading libel suits, censorship, and persecution.
The clearest forerunner of the genre, however, was the 17th-century swashbuckler Cyrano de Bergeracwho wrote of a voyager to the Moon finding a utopian society of men free from war, disease, and hunger.
See below Utopias and dystopias. The voyager eats fruit from the biblical tree of knowledge and joins lunar society as a philosopher—that is, until he is expelled from the Moon for blasphemy. In creating his diversion, Cyrano took it as his mission to make impossible things seem plausible.
Although this and his other SF-like writings were published only posthumously and in various censored versions, Cyrano had a great influence on later satirists and social critics.
Both Thomas Jefferson and George Washington owned copies. Page 1 of 8.Science fiction news with a science review plus forthcoming UK Science Fact and Science Fiction book releases for the Autumn , also Eurocon / Worldcon fandom, SF author & book trade news.
Ed. ), The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by George Mann () (ISBN or ISBN ), and Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers, edited by Curtis C.
Smith () (ISBN ). Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the Century may not include every reader's choices for the top science fiction of the 20th century, but it lives up to its title. Editor Orson Scott Card has assembled 27 standout stories by the biggest names and best writers in the genre.
Science Fiction of the 20th Century: An Illustrated History by Frank M. Robinson Vividly illustrated with images of film posters, magazines, and books-many shown here for the first time— Science Fiction of the 20th Century (Hugo Award® winner, ) offers an insider's view of the prophetic writers, illustrators, and editors who made science.
Troodon, the science fiction novels I covered were not ones I selected, but the ones I found in articles about the best novels of any kind from the 20th century, and some of those lists did include books from outside of the English speaking world.
Masterpieces: The Best Science Fiction of the 20th Century [Orson Scott Card] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An overview of the best science fiction short stories of the 20th century as selected and evaluated by critically-acclaimed author Orson Scott Card.
Featuring stories from the genre's greatest authors: Isaac Asimov.