For many years, all nations have been concerned about the proliferation of atomic explosives. Even in their distress, no one seems to be interested in the historic or the psychological record of why these weapons were developed, and what special breed of mankind devoted themselves to this diabolical goal. Despite the lack of public interest, the record is clear, and easily available to anyone who is interested. My interest in this subject, dormant for many years was suddenly rekindled during my annual lecture tour in Japan.
Areas still controlled by Japan in white and green included Korea, Taiwan, Indochinaand much of Chinaincluding most of the main cities, and the Dutch East Indies. Allied-held areas are in red, with the neutral Soviet Union and Mongolia in grey.
Most Japanese military units fought fiercely, ensuring that the Allied victory would come at an enormous cost. Nearly one million of the casualties occurred during the last year of the war, from June to June In DecemberAmerican battle casualties hit an all-time monthly high of 88, as a result of the German Ardennes Offensive.
America's reserves of manpower were running out. Deferments for groups such as agricultural workers were tightened, and there was consideration of drafting women.
At the same time, the public was becoming war-weary, and demanding that long-serving servicemen be sent home. Along the way, the ratio of Japanese to American casualties dropped from 5: Japan's merchant fleet declined from 5, gross tons in to 1, tons in Marchandtons in August Lack of raw materials forced the Japanese war economy into a steep decline after the middle of The civilian economy, which had slowly deteriorated throughout the war, reached disastrous levels by the middle of The rice harvest was the worst sinceand hunger and malnutrition became widespread.
Bythe U. By the middle ofthe U. In FebruaryPrince Fumimaro Konoe advised Emperor Hirohito that defeat was inevitable, and urged him to abdicate. Operation Olympic and Operation Coronet. Set to begin in OctoberOlympic involved a series of landings by the U.
The target date was chosen to allow for Olympic to complete its objectives, for troops to be redeployed from Europe, and the Japanese winter to pass. Most were immobile formations for coastal defense, but 16 were high quality mobile divisions.
Casualty predictions varied widely, but were extremely high. Delivered on June 15,after insight gained from the Battle of Okinawa, the study noted Japan's inadequate defenses due to the very effective sea blockade and the American firebombing campaign.
Stimson was sufficiently concerned about high American estimates of probable casualties to commission his own study by Quincy Wright and William Shockley. DeBakey and Gilbert Beebe. Wright and Shockley estimated the invading Allies would suffer between 1.
Quantities of phosgenemustard gastear gas and cyanogen chloride were moved to Luzon from stockpiles in Australia and New Guinea in preparation for Operation Olympic, and MacArthur ensured that Chemical Warfare Service units were trained in their use.
Air raids on Japan A B over Osaka on June 1, While the United States had developed plans for an air campaign against Japan prior to the Pacific War, the capture of Allied bases in the western Pacific in the first weeks of the conflict meant that this offensive did not begin until mid when the long-ranged Boeing B Superfortress became ready for use in combat.
Hansell determined that GuamTinianand Saipan in the Mariana Islands would better serve as B bases, but they were in Japanese hands.
Air bases were developed,  and B operations commenced from the Marianas in October Hansell continued the practice of conducting so-called high-altitude precision bombingaimed at key industries and transportation networks, even after these tactics had not produced acceptable results.
The attacks initially targeted key industrial facilities but much of the Japanese manufacturing process was carried out in small workshops and private homes. It was the deadliest bombing raid of the war, at a cost of 20 Bs shot down by flak and fighters.
By mid-June, Japan's six largest cities had been devastated. Aircraft flying from Allied aircraft carriers and the Ryukyu Islands also regularly struck targets in Japan during in preparation for Operation Downfall.
According to Yuki Tanakathe U. Japanese fighters and antiaircraft guns had difficulty engaging bombers flying at high altitude. Manhattan Project The discovery of nuclear fission by German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann inand its theoretical explanation by Lise Meitner and Otto Frischmade the development of an atomic bomb a theoretical possibility.
This prompted preliminary research in the United States in late Army Corps of Engineers. Robert Oppenheimer to organize and head the project's Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico, where bomb design work was carried out. Little Boy was a gun-type fission weapon that used uraniuma rare isotope of uranium separated at the Clinton Engineer Works at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Violence on the increase.
Essay No. Introduction: Human civilization has come a long way from the Stone Age. Yet man continues to be violent in his conduct. In fact, violence has increased today. A man cannot walk on the street without looking over his shoulder because of fear of assault.
- The Hiroshima Bombing Fifty four years ago, the detonation of the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima (and later on Nagasaki) ushered to the Nuclear Age. It was a moment full of horror, in which the eyes of the whole world were opened to the unimaginable possibility of nuclear holocaust.
Essay On Dropping The Atomic Bomb: The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. The hit on Pearl Harbor was the defining episode for the U.S.
entry into World War II. Note: Discussion this past fall of my book THE DECISION TO USE THE ATOMIC BOMB, and of a review by John Bonnett, generated extended and often emotional comment. War The Atomic Bomb Called Little Boy. When you think of the words "Little Boy" you think of innocence and incorruptibility, but the atomic bomb targeted for Hiroshima carrying the code name "Little Boy" was anything but, and was one of the last straws for Japan is World War II.
The world was stunned to learn that India has now tested nuclear weapons. For many years, all nations have been concerned about the proliferation of atomic explosives. Even in their distress, no one seems to be interested in the historic or the psychological record of why these weapons were developed, and what special breed of mankind devoted themselves to this diabolical goal.